Glossary - Pain Clinic

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  • F-wave - is a response of the muscles to the impulse sent by motorneurons as a result of its excitated antidromic wave, arising idue to distal indirect nerve stimulation with supramaximal current (with respect to M- answer).

  • Allodynia - pain sensation when exposed to non-painful stimulus. While exmining the sensitivity loss allodynia can br detected - pain sensation, sometimes excruciating, painless when in normal exposure (tactile, proprioceptive, or temperature). Observed during pain syndromes of central origin, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, polyneuropathy.

  • Anaphylactic shock (greek - ana again and – aphylaxis helplessness)  –  one of the manifestations of severe anaphylaxis are characterized by excitement, followed by depression of the central nervous system, bronchospasm, a sharp drop in blood pressure.

  • Anesthetic index - the ratio of the relative strength of the anesthetic to its relative toxicity.

  • Ankylosis (ankylosis; Ankil-+-oz) - lack of mobility in the joint due to inflammation, degenerative process, injury, or created artificially through surgery.

  • Ataxia - (ataxia; Greek. Confusion, lack of coordination) - movement disorder, manifested by disorder of coordination.

  • Autonomic reactivity - vegetative reactions that occur in response to internal and external stimuli. There are three degrees of autonomic reactivity: normal, high, low.

  • Autonomic maintenance activities - functional status and the rese.

  • Autonomic tone - the functional state of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

  • Cardialgia (Greek kardia heart + algos pain) pain of any origin, localized in the precordial region.

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome - is presented by paresthesia, numbness of fingers, pain. At first, these symptoms occur at night, and then in the afternoon with a fixed position of fingers (writing, reading books, etc.). Developing trophic disorders in the form of edema, wearing of the skin pattern. Disturbed function of the wrist.

  • Cauda equina (cauda equina, PNA, BNA, JNA) - a set of lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal spinal cord, located in the spinal canal below the spinal cord (II lumbar vertebra).

  • Causalgia - (causalgia; Greek. Kausis + algos burning pain; syn.: Pirogov - Mitchell's disease (syndrome causalgic) - a syndrome that develops after peripheral nerve injury and irritation caused by sympathetic fibers, characterized by intense burning pain, as well as vasomotor and trophic disorders in the area of innervation of the affected nerve.

  • Celiac plexus (Celiacus, Solaris) unpaired vegetative plexus, located on the celiac trunk, formed nn. splanchnici majores et minores, branches of n. vagus, last thoracic and first two lumbar ganglia of sympathetic trunk; has celiac ganglia; forms plexus hepaticus, lienalis et gastricus; takes part in the formation of a number plexuses in the abdomen.

  • Conus medullaris (conus medullaris, PNA, BNA, JNA) - the caudal spinal cord, consisting of sacral and coccygeal segments.

  • Cramps (crampi; Engl. Cramp, twitch, spasm) - recurring painful spasms, usually in the calf muscles, observed at failure of capillary circulation, in calcium metabolism defect, osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral spine.

  • Curvimeter - measuring range of motion in parts of the musculoskeletal system. (The goniometer - measuring range of motion in the joints).

  • Dextran - a multifunctional plasma-solution, rehydrant, detoxifying agent for the treatment of shocks.

  • Differentiated block - the suppression of impulses for slow (pain) fibers and preservation of the fast fibers (tactile and motor) by the reduced concentration of the anesthetic solution.

  • Doppler effect - the change in frequency of sound vibrations or electromagnetic waves, as an observer, due to relative motion of the observer and the source of the waves. When approaching , detected increase in the frequency, if removed - a fall.

  • Dorsalgia - back pain - a clinical syndrome caused by many reasons. The most common cause of dorsalgia are dystrophic lesions of the spine: low back pain with the damage of intervertebral discs and the adjoining surfaces of the vertebral bodies, spondylosis, manifestated by arthrosis of interspinous and / or facet joints; spondylitis.

  • Dorsopathy - The term "dorsopathy" means pain in the trunk and extremities of nonvisceral etiology and associated with degenerative diseases of the spine. Thus, the term "dorsopathy" according to the ICD-10 should be replaced but still in our country is used, the term "osteochondrosis."

  • Epicritic pain - which is sharp, sudden sensation that occurs after tissue damage done by thin myelinated A-delta fibers.

  • Exostosis (exostosis; exo-+ Greek. Osteon bone +-oz; syn. Chondral osteoma) - growth on the bone , formation on the bone tissue.

  • Failed surgery syndrome - recurrence of neurological symptoms and pain after surgery on the intervertebral disc.

  • Gelatinous substance - this is a closed, highly specialized system, which extends along the entire spinal cord, behind the gray matter of the dorsal horn. It recives thick and thin afferent fibers. In developing a sense of the pain it plays, according to modern scholars, particularly important - modulatory role.

  • H-wave - is a monosynaptic reflex. In adults, normally evoked mainly only in a calf muscle during stimulation of the tibial nerve by sub-maximal  current (with respect to M & A). Pulse passes by way of sensory fibers, followed by dorsal root, then switch to motor neurons.

  • Heart rate variability - which is the variability of RR intervals in consecutive cycles of heart contraction.

  • Hematoencephalic barrier - a semi-permeable barrier between the blood and nerve tissue, preventing the penetration of large polar molecules into the brain, as well as blood cells, including immune system.

  • Heberden's nodes (W. Heberden) - dense bony growths coming from the base of distal and head of middle phalanges detected in deforming arthrosis of the distal interphalangeal joints of the hand.

  • Homeostasis - the relative consistency the dynamic composition and properties of the internal environment and the stability of the basic physiological functions of the body, caused by complex regulatory interactions at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels of organization of living things.

  • Hyperalgesia (hyperalgesia; hyper-+ Greek. Algesis feeling pain) - increased pain sensitivity.

  • Hyperpathia (hyperpathia; hyper-+ Greek. Pathos feeling, discomfort, suffering) - a perversion of sensitivity, characterized by increasing the threshold of perception, lack of accurate localization of sensations that are unpleasant in nature, a tendency towards irradiation, long aftereffect, occurs when the partial break of mixed and sensory nerve in their recovery period after transection, in thalamic lesions or lesions of the posterior spinal columns.

  • Intraosseous pressure - pressure inside the bone, primarily the bone marrow which is in a relatively closed space.

  • Intraosseous receptors - receptors located inside the bone: baro-, chemo-, osmo-, proprio-, thermoreceptors, etc.

  • Infiltration anesthesia (local anesthesia), reversible loss of tissue sensitivity (especially pain) on the limited on areas of the body caused by the action of various chemical, physical or mechanical factors in the formation of the peripheral nervous system.

  • Interneuron - intermediate neuron in polysynaptic neuronal circuits.

  • Kyphosis - curvature of the spine in the sagittal plane of the posterior bulge.

  • Lateral inhibition - (lateral) inhibition. Intercalated cells form inhibitory synapses on neighboring neurons, blocking the path of the lateral spread of excitation and by directing the excitation to a strictly defined path.

  • Lordosis - a curvature of the spine in the sagittal plane of the bulge anteriorly.

  • Lumbalization (lumbalisatio; Lat. Lumbus loin) – developmental anomaly: the separation of the first sacral vertebra from the rest of the sacrum, and it is in the form of the lumbar vertebra.

  • M answer - the total potential of the muscle fibers recorded from the muscle during stimulation of the nerve innervating its single stimulus

  • Meniere's syndrome (P. Meniere, a French physician, 1799-1862 years) - a disease characterized chocleo-vestibular disorders that are caused by lesions of the inner ear. .

  • Mesenchymal stem cells - are located in the red bone marrow and cells are the precursors of all the organs and tissues from which are derived all other types of cells - hematopoietic, nervous and cardiovascular system, endocrine organs, bone, cartilage and muscle tissues..

  • Motor unit - spinal motor neurons and the group of muscle fibers innervated by them.

  • Muscle Trigger points - zones which causes intense pain, not proportionate to the effort exerted and usually radiating to another area.

  • Myofascial syndrome - local pain and tension in certain parts of the skeletal muscles.

  • Nucleus pulposus - gelatinous substance, located in the central part of the intervertebral disc, surrounded by a fibrous ring

  • Osteoblast (osteoblastus, LNH; osteo-+ Greek. Blastos germ, the embryo) - bone cells involved in the formation of intercellular substance and its turning into osteocyte.

  • Osteogenesis (osteogenesis, LNH; osteo-+ Greek. Genesis origin, development, syn. bone formation) - the process of bone formation, in some pathological processes .

  • Osteoclast (osteo-+ Greek. Klastos crushed) - 1) (osteoclastus, LNH; syn.: Giant cell bone, polycaryocyte) - Polynuclear cell of of bone tissue, capable of resorbing calcified cartilage and intercellular substance of bone tissue in the process of development and bone remodeling, 2 ) (Istor.) - lever or screw device for osteoclasis.

  • Osteoporosis - a process characterized by changes in bone structure, marked thinning, friable, brittle, porous and complete resorption of the bone off.

  • Osteosclerosis (osteosclerosis; + osteo-sclerosis; syn. Sclerosis bone) - alteration of bone structure, characterized by an increase in the number of bone trabeculae per unit volume of bone, their thickening, deformation and reduction of bone marrow cavities up to their complete disappearance; detected radiographically.

  • Osteocyte (osteocytus, LNH; osteo-+ GIST. Cytus cell; syn. Cells of the bone) - Mature bone tissue cell that produces the intercellular substance which is usually walled in it.

  • Pectalgia - a pain in the anterior chest wall.

  • The primary sensory neurons - nerve cells with a simple receptor, peripheral ending of which is able to perceive and produce irritation of the nerve impulse, bound to the central nervous system, such as cutaneous mechanoreceptors such as Pacinian corpuscles.

  • Peroneal syndrome - a peroneal neuropathy.

  • Protopathic pain - is generated in the deeper layers of the skin and other tissues, and is transmitted by nonmyelinated, slow C-fibers and appears a few seconds after application of the stimulus.

  • Receptors (Latin Receptor - accepting) - specialized sensory substance, adapted to the perception of adequate incentives for the body (irritation).

  • Red bone marrow (medulla ossium) – hemopoetic organ and biological protection of the body, it is disposed in the bone marrow and marrow cavities.

  • Reflex arc - a chain of neurons of the peripheral receptor through the central nervous system to the peripheral effector.

  • Reparative regeneration of bone tissue - tissue repair after this or that damage.

  • Sacralization (sacralisatio; Anat. Sacralis sacral) anomaly of development: the assimilation of V of the lumbar vertebra in Form I sacral, accompanied by their partial or complete fusion.

  • Scoliosis - curvature of the spine in the frontal plane.

  • Segmental structure of the ANS - Segmental part of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is represented by neurons located mainly in the lateral horns, and to a lesser extent in the intermediate zone (between the anterior and posterior horns), cervico-thoracic and upper-lumbar and sacral spinal cord, as well as in brainstem.

  • Segmental level of the autonomic nervous system - the lateral horn of the spinal cord, the nodes of the sympathetic trunk, vegetative nodes and plexuses.

  • Sensitization - a process opposite habituation, expressed in lowering the threshold for re-presentation of the stimuli, as a result of sensitization, the body begins to respond more effectively to the previously neutral stimulus.

  • Sensory receptors (Latin recipio, receptum take, receive) primary feeling - a receptor, which is a sensitive nerve ending.

  • Sinuvertebral nerve (the meningeal nerve of Luschka) drained from sympathetic trunk and innervates the dura mater, posterior longitudinal ligament, the posterior surface of the annulus, intravertebral venous plexus and the anterior part of ligamenta flava.

  • Spasticity - (Greek spastikos constricting) - increase in muscle tone, characterized by their resistance to the non-uniformity in the various phases of passive movement, seen in lesions the pyramidal tract, is more pronounced in the flexors of the hand and extensors of the leg.

  • Spinal motor segment - consists of two adjacent vertebrae, intervertebral disc, joints, nerves, ligaments, muscles that surround each segment of the spinal column.

  • Stellate ganglion - cervicothoracic ganglion of sympathetic trunk.

  • Sudomotor defect - impaired function of the sweat glands

  • Suprasegmental level of the autonomic nervous system - the premotor cortex, limbic-reticular tone and hypothalamus.

  • Velocity of excitation propagation - to measure the rate at which the excitation spreads to motor nerve, muscle recorded electrical responses to stimulation of several points along the nerve. The speed of between these two points is calculated by the difference between the latent periods of the muscle action potential

  • Vertebro-visceral syndrome - clinical manifestation of the internal organs in a reflex-trophic disorders caused by pathological changes in the corresponding segment of the spine.

  • Viseralgia - pain in the area of internal organ with inaccurate localization and unpleasant emotional tone.

  • Zaharin-Head's zones - (GA Zakhar'in, Russian therapist, 1829-1897; H.Head, English neurologist, 1861-1940) - certain areas of the skin, on which often  appears the reflected pain of internal organ diseases, and pain and temperature hypersensitivity.

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